By Gary Kaunonen
The copper mines of Michigan's Copper nation, within the top Peninsula, have been lively for one hundred fifty years, from 1845 till 1995. a number of the mine staff tried to unionize, so as to receive higher operating stipulations, wages, and hours.
The Michigan miners have been unsuccessful of their struggles with mine vendors, which got here to a climax within the 1913–14 Copper kingdom Strike. This nine-month conflict among staff represented through the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) and the 3 significant mining businesses within the zone took a very nasty activate Christmas Eve, 1913, at a celebration for strikers and their households equipped through the WFM. As many as 500 humans have been within the Italian Benevolent Society corridor in Calumet, Michigan, whilst somebody reportedly shouted "fire." there has been no hearth, however it is envisioned that 73–79 humans, greater than 60 of them childrens, died within the stampede for the exit.
by contrast dramatic backdrop, Gary Kaunonen tells the tale of Finnish immigrants to Copper kingdom. by means of interpreting the written checklist and fabric tradition of Finnish immigrant proletarians-analyzing structures, cultural associations, and courses of the socialist-unionist media—Kaunonen provides a brand new intensity to our knowing of the time and position, the occasions and a people.
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